Not surprisingly, this gave minimal consideration to environmental issues, although energy demands and implications, and impacts upon water and air, were noted. The geographical scope of the report is furthermore limited to the 16 economies of the ASEAN states, India and others in east Asia, with west, central, north Russia in particular and south Asia except India excluded. With a focus on the political economy of regionalism, other authors have considered environmental effects in more detail, for example the relevance for international waters.
By way of an overview, following this Chapter 1, Chapters 2—5 will analyse the subregional agreements in Asia — grouped into southwest Chapter 2 , central Chapter 3 , southeast Chapter 4 , and south and east Chapter 5 Asia. As will be seen in the latter chapter, the development of subregional agreements is much less developed in east and south Asia, and it is for these subregions that a proposed regime for the Third Pole is considered.
Technically encompassing territory in east Asia the Tibetan Plateau , as well as the mountains in the south Asian states, the Third Pole is a cross-subregion in the same way that the First Pole the Arctic , is a cross-region north America, northern Europe, north Asia. The role of China in east Asia and more generally is also considered in Chapter 5, following analysis of its role in the other subregions outlined at the end of the preceding chapters. This role is either as a Party or Dialogue Partner, international lender or developer. Apart from the questions answered in Chapters 2—4, Chapter 5 also contains other conclusions in response to the research questions outlined above, recommendations and consideration of future research directions.
For each of the regimes considered in Chapters 2—4, and where possible, also for the suggested regime in Chapter 5, objectives, principles, procedures and other mechanisms are evaluated with reference to the key research questions and international best practice; evidence of practice to demonstrate effectiveness will be indicated wherever possible. In more detail, chapter summaries are as follows. Chapter 2 concerns southwest Asia. The objective of both is the conservation of the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, and Red Sea and Gulf of Aden environments respectively, including the prevention, abatement and combating of marine pollution.
Each contains general and specific obligations, including the prevention of pollution from ships, from dumping, and from land-based sources; from exploration and exploitation; and from other human activities. They furthermore contain obligations to conduct EIAs and for liability and compensation. Chapter 3 examines central Asia. It first evaluates the Caspian Sea Convention. The objective of this is to protect the Caspian environment from all sources of pollution including the protection, preservation, restoration and sustainable and rational use of the biological resources.
China and the Third Pole
It contains guiding principles and obligations such as EIAs. The purpose of this last treaty is to ensure the effective environmental protection and improvement of the environment, including the rational use of natural resources, and to reduce and prevent transboundary environmental damage through harmonization and coordination.
Principles and provisions for specific environmental media are included, together with cooperation, access to information and public participation. Chapter 4 is focused on southeast Asia. It explains and analyses the Mekong Agreement. This is focused on cooperation in relation to sustainable development, and the utilization, management and conservation of the water and related resources to optimize the multiple-use and mutual benefits of all riparians, and to minimize harmful effects. Obligations on the Mekong River Commission MRC include creating a Basin Plan, and on Parties to notify and consult in relation to development, principally dam-building.
The first contains many broad environmental objectives and obligations, as well as specific provisions on conserving genetic diversity, endangered and endemic species, vegetation cover and forest resources, soil, water and air. EIAs, advance notification, and appropriate consultation should all be undertaken prior to any proposed utilization of the shared resources. Chapter 4 finally evaluates the Haze Pollution Agreement.
This aims to prevent, monitor and mitigate negative transboundary effects arising from land and forest fires through national efforts and international cooperation. Measures to control the sources of fires; develop monitoring, assessment and early warning systems; exchange information and technology; and provide mutual assistance, are all included.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Chapter 5 looks to south and east Asia. In east Asia, it furthermore analyses the Tumen Agreements. Obligations are also present for EIA and environmental management plans. This is based on the conclusions from each of the preceding chapters and in the context of the particular environmental issues and the geopolitics of this subregion. While most of the regimes in the subregions discussed in Chapters 2—5 are based on formal agreements, and the majority have been adopted and in many instances ratified and applied with some — albeit limited — success , the governance of the Third Pole is yet to be conceived, fully proposed and evaluated.
Finally, Chapter 5 answers the remaining central research questions not answered in the previous chapters and summarizes findings. It also emphasizes the likely challenges.
Regimes in Southeast Asia
These include — despite the significance and necessity of engaging China and other key states in environmental regimes, and particularly in the Third Pole subregion — that a reluctance to cede national sovereignty to international law-making may impede progress. Nonetheless, other successful examples of Chinese involvement in the implementation of and compliance with international law such as the World Heritage Convention , together with shared interests between China and other states in resolving the major environmental issues of the twenty-first century climate change uppermost , are indications of promise for the future.
Research directions going forward are elaborated at the end of Chapter 5. The latter paper concludes p18 that climate change and energy needs are as important as the global financial crisis to explain the resurgence of regionalism in recent times. See also text below. Environmental Law Journal , — Iran is also included within Southern Asia not Western Asia.
Northern Cyprus, with the greatest cultural and ethical claims to being part of Western Asia, is a Turkish Republic not recognized by the international community. Furthermore, the State of Palestine is now included in Western Asia alongside Israel; the existence of both is contested by various states.
Sign up. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview In the context of massive environmental problems in Southeast Asia, the countries in the region have decided — at least in some instances — to create regimes to solve these problems jointly. This book analyzes the creation and effectiveness of two environmental regimes, one on transboundary haze pollution and a second on resource management of the Mekong.
It will be shown that regime creation is extremely problematic and strategies to overcome conflicting actor constellations are mostly lacking. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Coaching entwickeln: Forschung und Praxis im Dialog. EMEP's main activities include collection of emission data, measurements of air and precipitation quality, and modeling of atmospheric transport and deposition of air pollutions, and they are used to evaluate the quantity and significance of transboundary fluxes and related exceedances to critical loads and threshold levels. In , it was decided to include integrated assessment into the core activities through building on past modeling work.
The Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections collects emissions and projections of acidifying air pollutants, heavy metals, particulate matter and photochemical oxidants. In the Nitrogen Oxides Protocol, the critical load means a quantitative estimate of the exposure to pollutants below which significant harmful effects on sensitive elements of the environment do not occur United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, This contributed to creating cooperative attitudes in the negotiation by avoiding an excessive focus on who is responsible for emitting pollutants Wettestad, The remarkable economic growth, accompanied by energy demand, has significantly increased emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases in East Asia.
The emissions of nitrogen oxides NO x and sulfur oxides SO x in the region exceeded those in Europe or North America in the middle of the s and have continued to grow since then Akimoto, East Asia accounts for approximately 30 per cent of the world total NOx emission, and its share of carbon dioxide CO 2 emission is even larger. The large emissions of NO x , SO x , CO 2 and other air pollutants bring about a serious deterioration of air quality in the region and a large contribution to global climate change. East Asia is also considered as one of the highest ozone O 3 pollution areas in the world, with adverse impacts on human health, crops yields and forest trees.
Efforts to establish international cooperation for tackling transboundary air pollution among East Asian countries started in the early s. Expert meetings were organized four times by to discuss the state of acid deposition in the region, effects on ecosystems, and future steps toward regional cooperation.
Recognizing that a comprehensive approach was required for assessing the impacts incorporating multiple factors involved, the experts recommended that acid deposition monitoring should be improved and strengthened. As monitoring methods and analytical techniques were different significantly among East Asian countries at that time, it was difficult to evaluate the state of acid deposition in the region accurately with available monitoring data.
Hence, the expert meetings agreed on establishing a regional collaborative monitoring network and proposed guidelines for standardized monitoring methods and analytical techniques. The first session of the Intergovernmental Meeting of EANET was held in March in Yokohama, Japan to discuss the fundamental characteristics of the proposed network, including objectives, activities, schedule for establishment, institutional and financial matters. An interim scientific advisory group was also established to advice on the scientific aspects of the preparatory phase activities. The technical manuals and guidelines for monitoring of wet deposition, soil and vegetation and inland aquatic environment were developed by the committee and adopted at its second meeting in March SAC is composed of scientists and technical experts nominated by the participating countries and advise and support the Intergovernmental Meeting on scientific and technical issues of the network.
Under SAC, subsidiary bodies were established to cover the four main areas of acid deposition monitoring, namely, wet deposition, dry deposition, soil and vegetation, and inland aquatic environment. Monitoring for wet and dry deposition are implemented in order to measure concentrations and fluxes of acidic substances deposited to the ground, while monitoring for soil and vegetation, and inland aquatic environment are being implemented to assess adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Currently, there are 51 sites for acid deposition monitoring in the network, including 20 remote sites, 12 rural sites, and 19 urban sites.
Data and information for ecological impact studies are collected from 14 inland aquatic monitoring sites and 16 soil and forest vegetation monitoring sites. A standardized set of methodologies for site selection, sampling and chemical analyses are followed at all the sites to ensure technical conformity within the network. The Network Center has hosted a central data collection system for compiling, storing and managing the data from these monitoring sites.
Since , the summaries of the monitoring data have been published annually, with the monitoring data also available from the website of EANET.
The ASEAN Way Out? Toward Cooperative Environmental Governance in Southeast Asia
Based on the data collected from these monitoring sites, annual assessments of the state of acid deposition in the region have been conducted. Periodic reports on the state of acid deposition in East Asia have also been published, utilizing the data accumulated from the start of monitoring. Special reports for policy makers have been published three times in the past, as well as biannual newsletters highlighting recent achievements and progress. Various activities have been conducted through EANET to improve the technical capabilities and skills of those involved in managing acid deposition in the participating countries.
Technical missions are dispatched annually to all participating countries to assist in monitoring performance, laboratory operations, data management and other procedures, in addition to national workshops, scientific workshops, individual training courses at the Network Center and annual expert meetings.
A number of scientific research projects on acid deposition and its effects were conducted in collaboration with scientists from the participating countries with diverse natural environments and climatic conditions to obtain a better understanding of the processes involved. The Chinese Academy of Science, for example, claimed that China contributed only 3.
Another research estimated that China accounted for around 65 per cent of the total SO 2 emissions in Asia and contributed 17 per cent of the sulfur deposited in Japan and 13 per cent in South Korea. With the wide variations in scientific opinion among the countries, East Asia had difficulties in establishing solid epistemic communities that can provide common understanding of the problems and authoritative advice on transboundary acid rain in the region. In the framework of EANET, SAC has been established to work on scientific issues, and scientists were institutionally guaranteed to participate in the policy making processes.
The scientists were able to contribute to producing scientific data by facilitating the monitoring activities and publishing periodic reports on the state of acid deposition. EANET as a network has contributed to providing a platform for sharing the concern over the effects of acid rain and building capacities to collect accurate and reliable data on pollutants using standardized methodologies.
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Despite the solid presence of scientific experts in the framework of EANET, their activities had only limited impacts on policy making Yoshimatsu, SAC was originally created to facilitate objective and neutral discussions based on scientifically valid knowledge. However, given the diverse backgrounds and competences of the scientists sent by the member countries, it was not an easy task to provide common advices and recommendations for policy decisions through consensus and agreement. Countries such as Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar had difficulties in dispatching experts with professional skills because human resources were not sufficient and were instead represented by government officials in SAC meetings.